Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome
What is bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome?
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome occurs when the bronchioles are damaged and inflamed, which results in scarring. This scarring affects breathing, and it is progressive.
What are the symptoms of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome?
Symptoms of this condition include:
- A dry cough
- Shortness of breath
What causes bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome?
A lung injury results in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and this injury can come from a variety of different things, such as respiratory illnesses and exposure to chemicals. Respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumonia are all linked to this condition. Inhaled chemicals like chlorine, ammonia, oxides of nitrogen or sulfur dioxide, and fumes from welding or food flavoring also contribute to bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.
In some cases this syndrome is associated with other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and graft-versus-host disease.
How is bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome diagnosed?
A physical exam is conducted in order to find the characteristic symptoms of this condition. Imaging studies, pulmonary function tests, and surgical lung biopsies can all be used to confirm a diagnosis.
What are the treatments for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome?
No cure for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome exists, but treatment can slow the progression. Severity and the cause may affect the treatment that doctors recommend. Medications that may be prescribed include macrolide antibiotics, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs. If a case is extremely severe, a lung transplant may be necessary. Supplemental oxygen and cough suppressants are other options for treatment.