Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy
What is Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy?
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy occurs when deposits called guttae form on the cornea, leading to vision issues. There are two forms of this condition: early-onset and late-onset. The former is very rare, while the latter affects about 4% of those over the age of 40.
What are the symptoms of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy?
The first noticeable symptom of this condition is blurred vision that improves throughout the day. This is followed by a loss of the ability to see detail, also called visual acuity. Sensitivity to lights is another symptom. Tiny blisters may also form on the cornea, which can cause pain.
What causes Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy?
Medical professionals have identified a number of genes and chromosomes that are connected to the condition, but they are still unsure of the exact genetic component. They do know that the corneal endothelial cells die over time, leading to an excess of fluid in the cornea, along with females having an increased risk of being affected.
Researchers have found that some cases of early-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy are the result of a mutated COL8A2 gene. This gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.
How is Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy diagnosed?
Doctors will begin with an eye exam, which is followed by testing corneal thickness, cell count, and tomography. An examination of the cornea is often necessary as well, as doctors look for guttae.
What are the treatments for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy?
Eye drops and ointments are treatment options, as are soft contact lenses. There are also surgical options, such as transplanting the inner layer of the cornea or the entire cornea. A number of treatments are currently in development as well.