MOG Antibody Disease (MOGAD)
What is MOG antibody disease?
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease (MOGAD) is a rare, immune-mediated, neurological condition that is characterized by inflammation in the brain, optic nerve, and/or spinal cord. In this condition, the immune system attacks MOG, which sits on the surface of the myelin sheath.
What are the symptoms of MOG antibody disease?
The optic nerve is most commonly impacted in this disorder, but the spinal cord, brainstem, and brain may also be impacted. Symptoms include:
- Loss of sensation
- Loss of color vision
- Blurring or loss of vision in one or both eyes
- Weakness in the limb(s)
- Paralysis of the limb(s)
- Profound bladder retention
- Loss of bowel/bladder control
What causes MOG antibody disease?
Medical professionals are unsure as to what exactly causes this condition; they only know that the immune system mistakenly attacks MOG on the myelin sheath.
How is MOG antibody disease diagnosed?
Diagnosing MOGAD can be difficult, as it is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), transverse myelitis, and optic neuritis.
In order to differentiate MOGAD from these other conditions, cell-based assays – a form of blood test – are needed.
What are the treatments for MOG antibody disease?
There are not yet any treatment guidelines for this condition; however, there are options if an acute event occurs. These are plasma exchange (PLEX), intravenous steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). While more research is necessary, long-term treatment consists of medications that suppress the immune system.