People with Laron syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder, have mutations or deletions of the GHR gene which results in a type of dwarfism. It is most commonly seen South America, in Mediterranean countries, and in North America.It is an inherited condition that is treated with injections of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) helps some patients gain height, but the results of treating patients throughout their lives is not known. This hormonal deficiency can result from growth hormone (GH) resistance, or resistance from the GH receptor. Along with stunted growth, people with Laron syndrome are prone to extreme insulin sensitivity and rarely develop diabetes. Curiously, they also seem to be immune from most cancers.
There is also speculation that Laron syndrome may hold the key to living a long, healthy life. Scientists are studying a group of people in Ecuador who all have this genetic mutation and survive well into old age.